sábado, 5 de mayo de 2007
EL GENOCIDIO ARMENIO
1. wath is the Armenian Genocide?
The atrocities committed against the Armenian town by the Ottoman Empire and the State of Turqua during the course of World War I and aos previous and later to sta, are called as a whole the Armenian Genocide. The Genocide is an organized form of slaughter of a set of people with the objective I specify to end to him its collective existence. This requires a central planning and an organized machinery to implement causing it that the genocide is a prototype of state crime, since single a state counts on the resources necessary to carry out destruccin so. The Armenian Genocide was planned and administered centrally by the State of Turqua against all poblacin Armenian of the Ottoman Empire. It was carried out during World War I between aos 1915 and 1918. The Armenian town was subject to deportations, expropriations, kidnappings, tortures, massacre and inanicin. The great mayora of poblacin Armenian unavoidably was removed from Armenia and Anatolia to Syria, where a great part of poblacin was sent to the desert to die of hunger and thirst. Great nmero of Armenian was massacreed metdicamente to wide and the long thing of the Ottoman Empire. Women and nios raptados and were brutally abused. All the wealth of the Armenian town was expropiada. Despus of less of ao of calm at the end of World War I, the atrocities against the Armenian town were resumed between 1920 and 1923, where the Armenian rest were victims of ms massacres and expulsions. In 1915, thirty aos before the Organizacin of the United Nations adopted the Convencin on the Prevencin and Castigo of the Crmenes de Genocidio, the international community condemned the Armenian Genocide like a crime against the humanity.
2. Who is responsible for the Armenian Genocide?
The decision to carry ahead the genocide against the Armenian population was taken by the political party that held the power in the Ottoman Empire. This it was the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) or Ittihad sees Terakkí Jemiyettí, acquaintance popularly as the "Young Turkish". Three figures of the CUP controlled the government; Mehmet Talaat, home Secretary in 1915 and Great prime Minister in 1917 (Grand Vizier); Ismael Enver, Minister of War and Ahmed Jemal, Minister of Navy and Military Governor of Syria. The Youths Turkish low assembly determined the high-ranking officials of the government and assigned the military commanders the effective execution of the Genocide. Besides the home Secretary and the Minister of War, the Turkish Youths included an organization recently created, conformed by guilty and irregular troops that called the Special Organization (Teshkilati Mahsusa). Their main objective was to carry out the massive massacre of the Armenians deportees. In charge of the Special Organization was Behaeddin Shakir, a doctor. On the other hand, extremist ideologists like Zia Gokalp, they promoted through the media the publicity of the CUP, the Panturquismo; the creation of a new empire that would extend from Anatolia to Asia Central and whose exclusively Turkish serious population. These concepts justified and they divulged the secret plans of the CUP to exterminate to all the armenians of the Ottoman Empire. The accomplices of the Turkish Youths, other figures that headed of the Ottoman government, members of the CUP Central Committee, and many provincial administrators responsible for the atrocities against the Armenian population were defendants by their crimes al final of the First World War. The main criminals evaded the justice al to flee Turkey. Nevertheless, they were courts in absence and they have been found guilty of capital crimes. The massacres, expulsions and the abuses to the Armenians between 1920 and 1923 was carried out by the Turkish Nationalists, who they represented a new political movement opposed al of the Turkish Youths, but with who they shared the ideology on the ethnic exclusiveness of the Turkish State.
3.How many people died in the Armenian Genocide?
It is reckoned that a million and middle of Armenians were exterminated between 1915 and 1923. The Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire in the First World War was of approximately two million. More than one million were deportees in 1915. Hundreds of thousands they were massacred in the act. Many other they died for starvation and epidemics that devastated in the fields of concentration. Among the armenians that lived in the periphery of the Ottoman Empire, many escaped al destiny of their countrymen of the central provinces of Turkey. More than ten thousand armenians in the east of Turkey escaped to the border with Russia carrying a precarious life as refugees. The majority of the resident armenians in Constantinople, the capital of Turkey, were deportees. In 1918 the state of the Turkish Youths he carried out a war in the Caucasus where approximately 1.800.000 Armenian they lived under the domination of Russia. The Ottoman forces advanced for the east of Armenia and Azerbaiján where also systematic massacres against the Armenian town were being carried out. The expulsions and massacres carried out by the Turks Nationalist between 1920 and 1923 they added hundreds of thousands again you kill. For 1923 the lands of Asia Smaller and the historic Armenia of the west, was taken by storm of the totality of its Armenian population. The destruction of the Armenian communities in this part of the world was total.
4. Witnesses of the Armenian Genocide existed?
Many witnesses of the Armenian Genocide existed. In spite of the fact that the government of the Turkish Youths took precautions and imposed severe restrictions in the reports and takes it of photographs of the event, many foreigners in the Ottoman Empire existed that witnessed the deportations. The majority of these were diplomats and missionaries of the United States of America. They were the first in carrying the news al external world on the development of the Armenian Genocide. Some of their reports were holders in the news of the western world and of the United States. Also among the ones that they witnessed the committed atrocities against the Armenian town existed many German citizens. The Germans were allies of the Turks during the First World War. Some German officials condemned the actions of the Turkish Youths and other they informed their superiors in Germany on the massacres carried out to the Armenian civil population. Many Russians could observe for them same the committed atrocities against the Armenian communities when the Russian army occupied part of Anatolia. Many Arabs of Syria, where the majority of the deportees were envoys, they could see the frightening condition of the scarce survivors of so cruel to proceed. By I finalize, many Turkish officials were witnesses of the massacre while took part of this. Many of them gave their testimonies low oath in the courts of postwar period where was submitted to judgment to the Turkish Youths, organizers of the Armenian Genocide.
5. Which was the answer of the international community before the Armenian Genocide?
The international community condemned the Armenian Genocide. In May of 1915, the United Kingdom, France and Russia notified the leaders of the Turkish Youths that serian responsible for a crime against the humanity. Al final of the war, the victorious allies demanded al Ottoman Government that cited before the justice to the Youths Turkish defendants by crimes of war. Also efforts were carried out for socorrer to the armenians that morían by starvation. The governments of the United States of America, United Kingdom and Germany sponsored the preparation of reports on the committed atrocities and many of these they were given to publicity. Nevertheless, any measure was taken against the State of Turkey, be to sanction it or to rescue al armenian town of the extermination. Besides, neither any measure against the Turkish Government for the restitution of the immense human and material loss was taken that suffered the Armenian town.
6. Why the Armenian Genocide is commemorated April 24?
Since already decades ago and in any country where there be a community of armenians established, each 24 of April recalls al million and middle of armenians massacred by the Turkey Ottoman. The date symbolizes the structural decapitation of the armenian town, since begun the night of April 23 and during all the early morning of on the 24, hundreds of intellectuals, religious, professional and noticeable citizens of armenian origin, they were despoiled of their homes low arrest and immediately deportees toward the interior of the Empire for subsequently to be murdered. This date in the calendar concentrates two very important events: the beginning of the plan of extermination of all the armenian town that would set in motion the members of the Party Ittihad (Young Turkish) since 1915 and even the first years of the Republic of Turkey founded by Mustafá Kemal Attatürk (1923). On the other hand, April 24 summarizes symbolically all those crimes of lese humanity, that the Turks-Ottoman committed in damage of the armenian town, that is to say the previous killings al April 24, 1915.
7. They are the massacres of respected Armenians currently as Genocide according to the Convention on Genocide of the United Nations?
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crimes of Genocide of the United Nations, describes al genocide as "the committed act for the purpose of destroying, in part or in its totality, to a nation, ethnic group, race or religious group". Clearly this definition applies to the committed atrocities against the armenian town on the part of the Turkish Government. It thus, it given that the Convention of the United Nations was adopted in 1948, 30 years after being perpetrated the Genocide. The citizens of armenian origin try to achieve the official recognition on the part of the governments where they have settled themselves after those atrocious episodes. In spite of the fact that various countries have recognized officially the Armenian Genocide, the Republic of Turkey as politics of state denies systematically the same one. But still, Turkey minimizes the evidences of the atrocities carried out, as mere allegations and blocks regularly the efforts applied al recognition of such episode. Therefore, to affirm the truth on the Armenian Genocide itself become in a matter of international importance. The recurrence of genocides in the 20th century and and beginnings of the XXI, does that the recognition of the crimes and committed atrocities against the armenians on the part of the Turkish State, be an urgent obligation of the international community.